The objective of this Handbook is to provide parliamentarians with the information they need in order to initiate and promote the evidence-informed and rights-based HIV response that is crucial to achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support for all. Particular attention is devoted to assisting parliamentarians in taking action and making decisions on HIV-related law and policy reform, by providing information on the critical role of human rights in the overall response to the epidemic. In Part I (Chapters 1–4), the Handbook discusses why human rights must be protected and promoted if HIV is to be overcome, and what parliamentarians can do to provide leadership on HIV and to intensify their legislative, oversight and budgetary functions. Part II (Chapters 5–13) then provide concrete examples of legislation and other parliamentary action that advance evidence-informed and rights-based prevention and treatment, explaining in more detail the reasons why a particular type of legislation or other action is most effective and appropriate. Part III provides other useful background information on HIV for parliamentarians.